academia agriculture art books cities commons strategies conferences copyright law digital commons economics education enclosure enclosures environment finance food free culture free software Germany government Great Britain history India international Internet land law localism market culture nature ontology open source software peer production politics videos water
Ivan Illich and Silence as a Commons
Wed, 09/06/2006 - 00:00
Scott Silver, executive director of Wild Wilderness, calls it the “corporate takeover of nature and the Disneyfication of the wild.” He’s referring the American Recreation Coalition, an industry trade association, and its new “Scenic Byways” website that proposes inserting “tonal patterns” into roadways as a new form of “innovative communication” (i.e., advertising). Kym Murphy, the former v.p. for environmental policy at the Walt Disney Company, explains:
The Walt Disney Company is experimenting with ways to communicate with its visitors by non-visual means in order to enhance visitors’ experiences and protect the visual landscape. We have successfully created a technology for pavement “grooves and ridges” which cause tires literally to hum a tune as a vehicle passes over them! In the future, this non-visual “cue” to guests could let them know they are approaching a Disney property and bring smiles to their faces.
Um, well…thanks, but I think I’ll pass. This is an “innovation” I can do without.
Hearing of Disney’s idea to bring “tonal patterns” to roads reminded me of a seminal essay by the late Ivan Illich that deserves to be remembered. Illich himself ought to be remembered and studied more frequently. He was an brilliant, iconoclastic mind, an early advocate for the commons and a penetrating critic of modern institutions as seen in such books as De-Schooling Society (1971), Tools for Conviviality (1973) and Medical Nemesis (1976). (Click here for his Wikipedia entry and here for a collection of his writings on the web.)
Illich’s essay, “ Silence is a Commons,” appeared in CoEvolution Quarterly in winter 1983, and I still marvel at how much wisdom he packed into that short piece. It was still the early days of the personal computer revolution, and Illich feared that “computers are doing to communication what fences did to pastures and cars did to streets.”
It’s too bad that he didn’t live to see the rise of the Internet, which in some ways has mitigated some of his fears (and in other ways, fulfilled his fears). In any case, his take on the commons and the threats to it are still worth considering. He starts with a nicely nuanced description of the commons:
People called commons those parts of the environment for which customary law exacted specific forms of community respect. People called commons that part of the environment which lay beyond their own thresholds and outside of their own possessions, to which, however, they had recognized claims of usage, not to produce commodities but to provide for the subsistence of their households. The customary law which humanized the environment by establishing the commons was usually unwritten. It was unwritten law not only because people did not care to write it down, but because what it protected was a reality much too complex to fit into paragraphs.
Illich’s concern was that computers were disenfranchising the communications and culture of those people who did not have computers. To illustrate this point, he told the story of the arrival of the first loudspeaker on the island of Brac, in a village on the Dalmatian coast, where his grandfather lived. It was 1926.
Few people there had ever heard of such a thing. Up to that day, all men and women had spoken with more or less equally powerful voices. Henceforth this would change. Henceforth the access to the microphone would determine whose voice shall be magnified. Silence now ceased to be in the commons; it became a resource for which loudspeakers compete. Language itself was transformed thereby from a local commons into a national resource for communication. As enclosure by the lords increased national productivity by denying the individual peasant to keep a few sheep, so the encroachment of the loudspeaker has destroyed that silence which so far had given each man and woman his or her proper and equal voice. Unless you have access to a loudspeaker, you now are silenced.
So when Disney proposes building “tonal patterns” into roadways — the better to invade our consciousness with commercial signals — it is invading a commons of silence with an insidious new kind of loudspeaker. It erodes our sovereign perceptions and autonomy in the most intimate ways.
While Illich would probably condemn the ways in which computer-mediated communication regiment and limit our human interactions, I wonder what he would make of the many online commons that have arisen in recent years. The concluding paragraphs of Illich?s essay are worth revisiting:
…Silence, according to western and eastern tradition alike, is necessary for the emergence of persons. It is taken from us by machines that ape people. We could easily be made increasingly dependent on machines for speaking and for thinking, as we are already dependent on machines for moving.
How, then, to recover the commons when it has been turned into a “resource”? Are we fated to a life with more police to stand guard over resources that once were socially managed commons?